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You Must Know, This Is a Row of Diabetes Medications and Their Side Effects | Good Doctor

Diabetes is a disease that can be treated with medication and a healthy lifestyle. But before doing this treatment, there are several types of diabetes drugs that you need to understand.

Disease diabetes

Diabetes is a condition that causes high levels of blood glucose or sugar levels in the body. This can happen when your body can’t make or use insulin the way it should.

Insulin itself is a substance that helps your body use sugar from the food you eat.

You need to know that there are two types of diabetes, namely type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Then people who have both types of diabetes need drugs to keep their blood sugar levels normal.

You can’t just take various medicines for diabetes. This is because the type of drug to be consumed depends on the type of diabetes you have.

Type 1 diabetes medication

You who have type 1 diabetes means that you cannot produce insulin in your body. This is because you have to use insulin every day to control blood sugar levels.

In general, insulin is used by injection. You who suffer from diabetes or as a patient can do the injection at home. However, keep in mind that the injection is with the permission of the doctor or assisted by medical personnel.

Not only in the form of injections, this insulin is also available in the form of a portable pump. This portable pump tool will pump insulin automatically into the patient’s body, making it more practical.

Then it’s not just one type, the type of insulin used as a diabetes medicine also varies greatly. There are variations in this type of insulin because there are differences in the speed of action, the maximum effect on blood sugar, and the duration of action in the body.

1. Short-acting insulin type diabetes drug

Short-acting insulin or often referred to as t short-acting insulin. This short-acting type of insulin takes about 30-60 minutes to become active in the bloodstream.

The peak point of short-acting insulin will appear after two to four hours of consumption. For those of you who have used this type of insulin, the effect can last up to five to eight hours.

When using it you also have to be disciplined in time. This is so that the drug can work properly in the body. You should inject this medicine 30 minutes before eating.

2. Rapid-acting insulin

Fast-acting insulin only takes 15 minutes to lower blood sugar levels. Then to reach the peak of its work will occur in 30-90 minutes after the drug is consumed.

However, after you take this drug the effect will only last for three to five hours.

Some examples of drugs that include rapid-acting insulin are insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin glulisine. You can inject this drug directly before eating and don’t have to wait a few minutes to hours.

3. Long-acting insulin

As the name implies, namely long-acting insulin, this drug takes up to four hours to get into the bloodstream. Unlike the others, this drug can last for dozens of hours, namely 14-24 hours.

Examples of this type of diabetes drug include insulin glargine, insulin detemir, and insulin degludec.

4. Premixed insulin

This type means mixed insulin which is a combination of several types of insulin. The action of this diabetes drug begins within five minutes to one hour after administration.

This type of drug itself can last for 10-24 hours. Examples of premixed insulin medications include combinations of insulin lispro protamine and insulin lispro, insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart, and insulin NPH and regular insulin.

5. Diabetes medication, immediate-acting insulin

This type of insulin begins to work in one to four hours after injection. Then this type of drug will reach its peak performance within eight hours.

Within 12-16 hours this drug will last to give effect after consumption. Examples are insulin isophane or insulin NPH.

You need to know that non-insulin injections can also be used by patients with type 1 diabetes.

For example, amylin analogs are given to patients with type 1 diabetes to control blood sugar as well as glucagon. The purpose of this drug is given to prevent a decrease in blood sugar levels that are too low.

Type 2 diabetes medication

For those of you who suffer from type 2 diabetes, diabetes medicines will really work to help the body to use insulin more effectively. It can also reduce excess sugar levels in the blood.

Medicines for diabetes. Image source:

In general, drugs used for those of you who suffer from type 2 diabetes are oral drugs. But insulin is also sometimes needed in some cases of diabetes with complications.

1. Biguanides

Or what is often called Metformin, this is the most common drug prescribed by doctors for people with diabetes. This type of drug will lower blood sugar levels by increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing sugar production in the liver.

2. Sulfonylureas

The workings of sulfonylurea drugs are by stimulating beta cells in the pancreas to produce more insulin.

Some examples of this type of diabetes medication include glimepiride, gliclazide, glyburide, chlorpropamide and tolazamide

3. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

When you take this type of drug it can reduce blood sugar levels by helping the body break down foods that contain carbohydrates and sugar.

In order to get maximum results, you should take this diabetes drug before eating. One example is acarbose and miglitol

4. Dopamine Agonists

You who take this drug will affect the action of the hormone dopamine so that the hypothalamus will receive a signal to reduce glucose tolerance, free fatty acids and triglycerides. One example of this type of diabetes medication is bromocriptine.

5. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors

These types of drugs are often also referred to as DPP-4 inhibitors. You who suffer from type 2 diabetes really need this type of drug to produce more insulin and lower blood sugar without causing hypoglycemia.

Examples of these diabetes drugs include alogliptin, alogliptin-metformin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin-metformin.

6. GLP-1 receptor agonists

The way this drug works is by increasing the growth of B-cells and the amount of insulin used by the body.

Those of you who are taking this diabetes drug need to know that its side effects can reduce appetite and glucagon levels used by the body, so it is beneficial for diabetics.

This drug is also recommended as part of the treatment of diabetic patients who also suffer from heart failure and chronic kidney disorders which are more predominately caused by their diabetes.

Examples of some drugs of this type include albiglutide, dulaglutide, exenatide, liraglutide, and semaglutide.

7. Meglitinides

Meglitinide is needed by the body to help the process of releasing insulin. However, this diabetes drug can also lower blood sugar too low, so it is not necessarily suitable for all diabetes patients.

Nateglinide, repaglinide, and repaglinide-metformin are some examples of this type of drug class.

8. Sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors

For short these drugs are called SGLT2 inhibitors. The goal is to help you get rid of blood sugar from the body which will be excreted through urine.

This way certainly makes the kidneys no longer store too much glucose.

Just like the previous types of drugs that have been described, namely GLP-1 receptor agonists, the use of this diabetes drug is also recommended as an alternative for diabetics who experience heart failure and chronic kidney disorders which predominate.

Some types of drugs include SGLT2 inhibitors which include dapagliflozin, dapagliflozin-metformin, and canagliflozin.

9. Thiazolidinediones diabetes drugs

This drug really works to lower blood sugar in the liver, as well as helping fat cells use insulin.

Some examples of diabetes drugs that fall into this type include rosiglitazone, rosiglitazone-glimepiride, pioglitazone-alogliptin, pioglitazone-glimepiride, and pioglitazone-metformin.

You should know that this drug can increase the risk of heart disease. Therefore, it’s a good idea to consult your doctor more regularly so that it will help you to closely monitor heart function during treatment.

Diabetic drug side effects

Having side effects is the most unwanted problem after consuming several types of drugs for body health. However, it is unfortunate that some diabetes medications have side effects on the body.

Diabetics should have an independent blood sugar meter at home. Because diabetes drugs can have quite dangerous side effects, namely hypoglycemia or low blood sugar levels.

Check diabetes
Check diabetes. Image source:

Reported from, There are several side effects that you will feel on your body after taking diabetes medication.

1. Sulfonylureas

Low blood sugar, stomach pain, skin rash or itching, weight gain

2. Biguanides or metformin

Illness with alcohol, kidney complications, stomach pain, fatigue or dizziness, metallic taste.

3. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

Usually you will experience bloating and diarrhea.

4. Thiazolidinediones

Weight gain, risk of liver disease, risk of anemia, swelling of the feet or ankles.

5. Meglitinides

Weight gain, low blood sugar.

The list of side effects above may not be very complete, if you experience other things, immediately check with your doctor for more information about the effects of the drugs you are taking.

There are many medications available to treat both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. They each work in different ways to help you control your blood sugar.

You really need to ask your doctor about which diabetes medication is most suitable based on the type of diabetes you have and according to your body condition and other factors.

The side effect to watch out for is hypoglycemia or low blood sugar levels. Pay attention if you have symptoms such as lightheadedness, sensitivity, hunger, fatigue, weakness, drowsiness to loss of consciousness.

Check your blood sugar level immediately if you experience the things above. If your sugar level is <70 mg/dl then go to the emergency room immediately. You can also drink sugary drinks as first aid.

Also read: For diabetics, this is the danger of soft drinks for your body

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