Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Phyllodes tumor or phyllodes tumor is a rare form of breast tumor. In most cases, these tumors are benign. Check out a full explanation of the symptoms, causes, and treatment in the following review.
What is a Phyllodes Tumor?
Phyllodes tumor or phyllodes tumor is an abnormal growth of cells in the stromal connective tissue in the breast. These cells grow uncontrollably to form a mass or tumor.
This condition is a type very rare tumors; less than one percent of cases of all breast tumors.
In addition, this condition is common in women aged 40 years and over, but this does not rule out the possibility of these tumors being found at a younger age.
Possible tumors malignant or benign it is generally divided into 3 groups based on their shape when viewed under a microscope:
- Benign (non-cancerous): These tumors generally do not grow quickly or spread.
- borderline: This tumor has properties in between tumors benign And malignant (cancerous).
- Malignant (cancerous): These tumors tend to grow quickly and will spread, and may come back after treatment.
Most of the phyllodes tumors found belong to this group benign and only a few cases were included in the cluster malignant.
Also Read: 6 Types of Exercise to Lower the Risk of Breast Cancer
Phyllodes Tumor Symptoms
Here are some signs that can appear when a phyllodes tumor grows in the breast:
- A hard lump in the breast that feels soft to the touch.
- Generally larger than 3 cm.
- Growing fast even in a matter of weeks.
- The skin over the bump feels warm or red.
If the phyllodes tumor that grows in the breast is a group malignantthe patient may experience the following symptoms:
- Hard to breathe.
- Bone pain.
However, these symptoms generally appear when cancer cells have spread to the bones or lungs.
When is the Right Time for a Doctor?
You need to see a doctor as soon as you notice a lump in your breast or experience the symptoms mentioned above.
Phyllodes tumors don’t always mean breast cancer, but they can sometimes come back after treatment. To prevent tumors from reappearing, it is recommended that you do a breast screening once every four to six months.
Causes of Phyllodes Tumor
Until now, the exact cause of phyllodes tumor is not known. Just like tumors in other organs of the body, the growth of these tumors is caused by mutations in the cell’s DNA and then the cell growth becomes uncontrollable.
However, there are several factors that can increase the risk of developing phyllodes tumors, including:
- Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Women born with this rare genetic disorder have a nearly 100 percent risk of developing breast cancer.
- Not nursing or breastfeeding for a short period of time. This eliminates the opportunity to remove potentially cancerous cells and obtain a stable estrogen hormone for some time.
- Giving birth for the first time over 30 years. Women who give birth for the first time over the age of 30 have a higher risk of developing tumors than women who have never given birth.
- Increase in the hormone estrogen in the body. Estrogen is known to be a carcinogen, so if the amount of this hormone increases in the body, the risk of tumors can also increase.
Also Read: Don’t Be Too Late, Here Are 4 Ways to Detect Breast Cancer
Diagnosis of Phyllodes Tumor
Phyllodes tumor is a difficult condition to know because it looks very similar to other breast lumps, such as a fibroadenoma.
When you consult a doctor with complaints of a lump in the breast, the doctor will check the shape and size of the lump.
If there is a tendency towards phyllodes tumor, the doctor will advise you to undergo several tests to make a diagnosis.
Several tests are needed to make a diagnosis, including:
- Mammograms. This examination will show a clear picture of the lump. Phyllodes tumors have a round or oval shape with little spots of calcium in them.
- ultrasound. This examination uses sound waves to take pictures of the inside of the body so the doctor can see the shape of the lump clearly.
- Needle biopsy. The doctor will take a sample of the lump tissue using a needle and a microscope to check for signs of cancer.
- Operation. This procedure is carried out by taking all the lumps and then examining them in the laboratory. This examination can determine the type of tumor benign, borderlineor malignant.
- Imaging test. If a phyllodes tumor is found to be malignant, an MRI or CT scan can be done to determine the spread of cancer cells.
Treatment of Phyllodes Tumor
This condition can cause health problems, even if tumors grow in clusters benign. The doctor will advise the patient to perform tumor removal surgery.
The surgeon will remove the tumor as well as the healthy tissue around it. BSeveral types of operations are used to handle conditions, including:
- Lumpectomy. The surgeon will remove the tumor along with at least 1 cm of healthy tissue around the tumor. This removal of healthy tissue aims to prevent the tumor from growing back.
- Partial mastectomy. If the tumor is larger, the surgeon will remove part of the breast where there is a tumor.
- Total mastectomy. The surgeon will remove the entire breast. Patients can undergo breast reconstructive surgery at the same time.
The type of surgery a patient undergoes depends on the size of the tumor and the patient’s preference.
If the tumor is known to be included in the malignant or cancerous group, the doctor will recommend that you undergo treatment, such as:
- Radiotherapy. Treatment uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. Doctors will suggest this treatment after surgery to treat phyllodes tumors that have not spread to the outside of the breast.
- Chemotherapy. Treatment uses drugs to kill cancer throughout the body. Chemotherapy treatment can be an option if cancer cells have spread to other organs of the body.
Also Read: 10 Ways to Maintain Breast Health To Avoid Cancer
Phyllodes Tumor Cure Rate
After the phyllodes tumor operation is performed, the cure rate is will increase when malignant tumor cells (cancer cells) have not spread far from the location of the tumor.
When the cancer cells have spread, it becomes more difficult to remove all the cancer cells. The growth of cancer cells that have spread can be stopped with chemotherapy but this procedure does not work optimally on phyllodes tumors.
Even if the cancer is gone, it is possible for it to reappear. When this happens, surgery can cure it.
In the end, the right treatment and as early as possible, the chances of recovery will be even greater.
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