Info Sehati

Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Mesothelioma is a cancer that develops in the mesothelium, which is the layer of tissue that covers most of the body’s organs such as the abdominal and chest cavities. Find out more about the symptoms, causes, and how to treat it in the following review.

Mesothelioma: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

What is Mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is a deadly and aggressive form of cancer. However, this type of cancer is rare.

Most cases occur in people aged 75 years and over. In addition, men are known to be more susceptible to experiencing it than women.

In many cases, cancer is already at an advanced stage, making treatment difficult.

Mesothelioma Symptoms

In the early stages, a person may not feel any symptoms. New symptoms will be felt as the condition gets worse. In addition, the symptoms that appear also vary, depending on the affected organ.

In pulmonary mesothelioma, several symptoms can be felt, including:

  • Chest pain.
  • Hard to breathe.
  • Cough.
  • Fever and sweats at night.
  • Difficult to swallow.
  • Stomach ache.
  • Anemia.
  • Fatigue.
  • Fever and sweats at night.
  • Fatigue.
  • Hoarseness.
  • Fluid accumulation (pleural effusion or peritoneal effusion).
  • Shoulder pain
  • Low oxygen levels.
  • muscle weakness
  • Pain in the upper arm.
  • Respiratory complications.
  • Weight loss without a definite cause.
  • A lump appears under the surface of the chest skin.

Meanwhile, mesothelioma that appears in the stomach can cause several complaints, such as:

  • Diarrhea.
  • Constipation.
  • Fever or sweats at night.
  • Lump or swelling in the abdomen.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Disorders of urination or defecation.
  • Weight loss

When is the Right Time to See a Doctor?

Check with your doctor immediately if you experience some of the conditions mentioned above, especially if the complaint persists or the symptoms seem unusual.

An examination was also carried out to determine whether there were other conditions that caused the complaint.

Also Read: Does Bathing at Night Cause Wet Lungs?

Causes of Mesothelioma

The cause of this cancer is not known with certainty. However, this condition is known to be associated with exposure to asbestos.

Asbestos fibers can be found in household items, such as talcum powder, clay pots and paint. These fibers can be inhaled and eventually stick to the lining of the lungs, stomach or heart.

The presence of asbestos in certain organs in the body can cause dangerous inflammation and trigger the formation of tumors.

Asbestos causes DNA damage, either directly or indirectly. Directly, asbestos interferes with the mitotic process in cell division. This causes cell damage and mutation.

While indirectly, asbestos causes mesothelial cells to release mutagenic reactive oxygen and nitrogen; where this can cause mutations.

Mesothelioma Risk Factors

In addition to exposure to asbestos, there are a number of factors that are known to increase your risk of developing this condition. Some of these factors include:

  • Specific exposures: Exposure to viruses (SV 40).
  • Certain diseases: Deteriorating health can increase the risk of various types of diseases, including mesothelioma.
  • Genetics: BAP1 is a tumor-fighting gene. If the gene is mutated, a tumor is at risk of developing. People who have families with a genetic mutation of the BAP1 gene may be more susceptible to this condition.
  • Have had radiation therapy: If you have had radiation therapy for breast cancer, you are at an increased risk of this disease.

Mesothelioma Diagnostics

Before making a diagnosis, the doctor will perform a physical examination and review the medical history. After the symptoms are known to lead to this cancer, the doctor will carry out a number of supporting tests to make a diagnosis.

Some of the tests that might be done include:

1. Biopsy

The procedure is carried out by taking tissue samples in the body for examination in the laboratory. The doctor will choose the right biopsy procedure.

2. Imaging

This examination is done to identify the tumor, location, and spread of cancer. Some of the imaging tests that can be done include:

  • X-rays: Tests are done to detect fluid in the pleural cavity, thickening of the lining of the lungs, or any changes in the shape of the lungs.
  • Ultrasonography (USG): This test is performed to provide direct images of the body so that it can identify the presence of tumors.
  • CT scan: This action is performed to detect the location of the cancer and the spread of cancer to other organs of the body.
  • PET scan: This test aims to get a detailed picture of the tissue suspected of having cancer.
  • MRI: The test is done to get a 3D view of the organs and find out the location of the tumor.

Also Read: Necrotizing Pneumonia, Lung Disease to Watch Out for

Cancer Stage

Mesothelioma staging is used to describe how far the tumor has spread. If you already know it, treatment can be given more effectively.

The following are cancer categories based on their level:

  • Stage 1: Cancer cells are in the mesothelial layer.
  • Stage 2: Cancer cells enter the lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3: Cancer cells have spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4: Cancer cells have metastasized throughout or outside the chest cavity or abdomen.

Mesothelioma complications

If not handled properly, the condition can cause a number of complications, including:

  • It’s hard to breathe.
  • Chest pain.
  • Difficult to swallow.
  • Pain due to pressure on the nerves and spinal cord.
  • Pleural effusion or fluid accumulation in the chest. This condition can compress the nearby lungs so that the patient will have difficulty breathing.

Mesothelioma Treatment

The following are various treatments that are commonly used to treat this condition, including:

1. Radiotherapy

This treatment uses X-rays or proton beams to kill or damage cancer cells. Therapy is usually done after surgery to remove cancer cells.

2. Chemotherapy

The doctor will give certain drugs to destroy cancer cells. Several types of these drugs, including pemetrexed with cisplatin or carboplatin.

3. Operation

Surgery can be performed at an early stage. Several options of surgery that can be performed, namely:

  • Surgery to suck up fluid in the chest.
  • Surgery to remove as many cancer cells as possible from the patient’s body.
  • Surgery to remove the cancerous part of the lung and surrounding tissue.
  • Surgery to remove tissue around the abdominal cavity, lungs and ribs affected by cancer cells.

4. Multimodality Therapy

Multimodality therapy is a combination of three or more medications. This action can be an option to increase the success of treatment.

5. Targeted Therapy

This therapy uses drugs to attack cancer cells. Although not common drugs to treat mesothelioma, but the doctor may recommend targeted therapy based on the results of tumor DNA testing.

Also Read: 9 Benefits of Coenzyme Q10, Maintain Heart and Lung Health

Mesothelioma complications

If it spreads to suppress nearby organs or tissues, this cancer can cause various complications.

If it attacks the lungs, some of the complications that can occur include:

  • Chest pain.
  • It’s hard to breathe.
  • Pleural effusion.
  • Difficult to swallow.
  • Pain that appears due to pressure on the spinal cord and nerves.

Meanwhile, in stomach mesothelioma, complications that can arise are intestinal obstruction.

Mesothelioma Prevention

The main way to prevent this condition is to avoid exposure to asbestos. If you are in a work environment where there is a high risk of exposure to asbestos, it is important to apply the following rules:

  • Use safe protective equipment while at work.
  • Look for asbestos-containing items in your home.
  • Dispose of asbestos material to a safe place.

In addition, be sure to carry out regular health checks to detect cancer early.

  1. Anonymous. Mesothelioma. (Accessed 9 February 2023).
  2. Anonymous. Mesothelioma. (Accessed 9 February 2023).
  3. Anonymous. 2022. Mesothelioma. (Accessed 9 February 2023).
  4. Molline, Linda. Types of Mesothelioma. (Accessed 9 February 2023).

DoctorHealthy | © 2023 PT Media Kesehatan Indonesia. Copyright Protected

Source link

Related Articles

Tinggalkan Balasan

Alamat email Anda tidak akan dipublikasikan. Ruas yang wajib ditandai *

Back to top button