Stage 2 Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
Stage 2 lung cancer indicates that the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes. See an explanation of the symptoms and various treatments that can be done in full below.
What is Stage 2 Lung Cancer?
Lung cancer occurs when abnormal cells in parts of the lungs and respiratory tract grow and multiply out of control.
Lung cancer itself is divided into two: small cell lung cancer or small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
NSCLC accounts for 80–85 percent of all lung cancer cases worldwide. Stage 2 NSCLC lung cancer is further divided into 2 sub-stages.
Stage 2 means that the tumor in the lung has a size ranging from 4-5 cm or the cancer cells have spread to nearby blood vessels or other structures.
Meanwhile, SCLC lung cancer spreads and grows faster than NSCLC and has separate staging divisions apart from a numbering system.
Also Read: Recognize 9 Types of Cancer that are Vulnerable to Attacking Children
Symptoms of Stage 2 Lung Cancer
Early-stage lung cancer may not cause specific symptoms, which makes detection and treatment of this deadly disease often too late. When it enters stage 2, this cancer is characterized by a number of symptoms.
Following are the characteristics of stage 2 lung cancer that can occur, including:
- Cough does not go away.
- Cough with blood.
- Hoarseness .
- Weight loss for no apparent reason.
- Loss of appetite.
- Chest pain that appears or gets worse when you take a deep breath, laugh, or cough.
- Recurrent lung infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis.
- Short breath.
- Great fatigue.
Causes of Stage 2 Lung Cancer
There are several factors that can increase a person’s risk of developing this condition. In most cases, lung cancer is caused by cigarette smoke. Both active and passive smokers have a high risk of experiencing it
When the lungs are continuously exposed to carcinogens, the lung tissue will be damaged and the body will not be able to repair it. Over time the cells will act abnormally and cancer begins to develop.
Several factors can increase the risk of stage 2 lung cancer, including:
- Smoke. The risk of lung cancer will increase with the number of cigarettes smoked each day and how long you have smoked.
- Become a passive smoker. The risk of getting lung cancer still increases when you continue to inhale cigarette smoke even if you don’t smoke.
- Have had radiation therapy especially chest therapy.
- Exposure to radon gas. This gas is the result of the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water. The accumulation of radon gas increases inside the building.
- Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Aresnik, chromium, and nickel can increase the risk of lung cancer.
- genetics. If you have a parent, sibling or child with this condition, you have a higher risk.
Also Read: The Importance of Early Screening for Lung Cancer for Smokers
Diagnosis of Stage 2 Lung Cancer
The doctor will ask about the patient’s family history and medical history and perform a physical examination.
If the doctor finds any symptoms that lead to cancer, the doctor will generally recommend undergoing several examinations, such as:
- Biopsy. Take a sample of lung tissue and send it to a laboratory for testing.
- Sputum cytology. Examination of mucus from the lungs
- Imaging test. See the lung organs as a whole with various methods such as MRI, CT scans, or X-rays.
- Bronchoscopy. The doctor will insert a tube to examine the tumor or perform a biopsy.
- Thoracentesis. Examination of lung fluid.
Lung Cancer Stages Stage 2
At this stage, the size of the tumor is more than 4 cm or the cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes or other organs closest to the lungs.
The following are the stages of stage 2 lung cancer:
In stage IIA NSCLC, it is known that the cancer has a size between 4-5 cm and the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
In addition, this condition also describes the cancer has spread to the inner membrane that covers the lungs and bronchi; some or all of the lungs cannot function; and some or all of the lung has pneumonitis.
In stage IIB NSCLC, the tumor has grown larger than 5 cm and has spread to the lymph node tissue closest to the tumor.
This condition indicates that cancer appears on the inside of the membrane lining around the lungs and bronchi, and that part or all of the lungs are dysfunctional or experiencing pneumonitis.
Stage 2 Lung Cancer Treatment
Treatment depends of the type of cancer and general body condition. If the cancer is only in the lungs, surgery is generally recommended.
The following are several types of treatment used to treat stage 2 cancer, including:
This operation aims to take the tissue overgrown with cancer cells and take the surrounding tissue. This action can be done by removing part or all of the lung to stop the spread of cancer cells.
If the cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes, it is possible to remove the lymph nodes that are overgrown with cancer cells.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. One or more chemotherapy drugs may be given through a vein in your arm (intravenously) or taken by mouth. The drug combination is usually given in a series of treatments over several weeks or months.
Chemotherapy is often used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy may also be used before surgery to shrink the cancer and make it easier to remove.
This therapy uses a machine to irradiate cancer cells with high-energy radiation from outside the body. You can get this therapy when surgery has a high risk to the body.
You may also have radiotherapy after surgery to remove any remaining cancer cells in the body.
Also Read: Being a Source of Antioxidants, Can Coffee Really Prevent Cancer?
Prevention of Stage 2 Lung Cancer
Pollution exposure is the main cause of lung cancer. Here are some preventive steps that can be taken:
- Avoid secondhand smoke.
- Use a nose and mouth protective mask when doing outdoor activities.
- Eat lots of fruit and vegetables.
- Regular exercise.
- Conduct regular medical check-ups.
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