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Must Know, These are 10 Antibiotic Classes and Examples | Good Doctor

To treat bacterial infections, doctors usually prescribe antibiotics. However, antibiotics are a diverse class of drugs. Therefore, the functions possessed by each class of antibiotics are also different.

So, in order for you to better understand the class of antibiotics, let’s see the full review below.

What are antibiotics?

class of antibiotics

Antibiotics are drugs that can fight infections caused by bacteria. Antibiotics can help stop the growth of bacteria or destroy bacteria.

You need to know that before the bacteria multiply and cause symptoms, the immune system can help kill the bacteria. White blood cells or leukocytes can attack harmful bacteria, if symptoms appear the immune system can overcome and fight the infection.

However, sometimes the number of harmful bacteria can be excessive, so that the immune system is not able to fight all the bacteria. Well, in this case antibiotics can help.

How do antibiotics work?

There are several types of antibiotics. These types of antibiotics can work in one of two ways.

  • Bactericidal antibiotics, such as penicillin, can help kill bacteria by interfering with the formation of the bacterial cell wall or its cell contents
  • Bacteriostatic antibiotics, these can help stop bacteria from multiplying

What can and cannot do classes of antibiotics and examples?

There are some bacteria that live in the body and are harmless. But still, the bacteria can infect almost any organ. Antibiotics can help treat bacterial infections.

Quoted from WebMDas for several types of infections that can be treated with antibiotics include:

  • Some ear and sinus infections
  • Tooth infection
  • Skin infection
  • Meningitis (swelling of the brain and spinal cord)
  • Strep throat
  • Bladder and kidney infections
  • Pneumonia due to bacteria
  • Whooping cough

It should be noted that only bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics. Colds, flu, and some bronchitis infections, certain sore throats, and stomach flu are caused by viruses. Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections.

Some types of antibiotics can act on different types of bacteria, this is known as “broad-spectrum” or broad spectrum. Meanwhile, some others only target certain bacteria, this is known as “narrow-spectrum” or narrow spectrum.

Recognize the class of antibiotics

There are a variety of antibiotics available in different brands. Antibiotics are usually classified according to how they work. What you need to know is that each type of antibiotic only works against certain types of bacteria or parasites.

Reporting from various sources, here is the classification of antibiotics that you need to know.

Also read: Must Know! This is an important reason why antibiotics must be spent

1. Penicillin

The class of antibiotics and the first example is penicillin. Penicillin is a type of antibiotic derived from the fungus Penicillium. This type of antibiotic is usually the doctor’s first choice for treating several diseases caused by bacteria.

Penicillin works by preventing cross-linking of the amino acid chains in the bacterial cell wall. It doesn’t affect pre-existing bacteria, but newly produced bacterial cells can have weak cell walls that break easily.

Some examples of penicillins include:

  • Amoxicillin
  • Ampicillin
  • Penicillin G
  • Penicillin V

2. Tetracyclines

The second class of antibiotics is tetracycline. Tetracycline is a class of antibiotics used to treat infections caused by susceptible microorganisms such as gram positive and negative bacteria, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, protozoa, and rickettsiae.

Tetracycline works by inhibiting protein synthesis in microbial RNA, which is an important molecule that acts as a messenger for DNA.

This drug is a type of bacteriostatic antibiotic, which can mean it prevents bacteria from multiplying.

This type of antibiotic is used to treat infections such as respiratory, skin, and genital infections. Not only that, tetracycline can also be used to treat unusual infections, such as Lyme disease, malaria, anthrax, or even cholera.

Some examples of tetracyclines include:

  • Doxycycline
  • Minocycline
  • Tetracycline

3. Chepalosporin

Next, the class of antibiotics that you need to know is cephalosporins. Chepalosporins are bactericidal (kill bacteria) and work in a similar way to penicillins.

This drug works by binding to and blocking the activity of the enzyme responsible for making peptidoglycan, which is an important component of the bacterial cell wall.

Chepalosporin is referred to as a broad spectrum antibiotic (broad-spectrum) because it is effective against various types of bacteria.

This class of antibiotics can help treat various infections, such as strep throat, skin infections, to serious infections such as meningitis.

Some examples of cephalosporins include:

  • Cefixime
  • Cefpodoxime
  • Cefuroxime
  • Cephalexins

Also read: Ceftriaxone drug: Get to know the benefits, dosage and side effects of its use

4. Quinolones

Quinolones, also known as fluoroquinolones, are a group of active antibiotics that fight bacteria. This antibiotic can treat a variety of infections, including eye infections, pneumonia, skin, sinus, joint, urinary or gynecological infections etc.

Quoted from drugs.comquinolones can affect the function of two enzymes produced by bacteria, so they cannot repair DNA or help make bacterial DNA.

Some examples of quinolones include:

  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Levofloxacin
  • Moxifloxacin

5. Lincomycin

This class of antibiotics is used to treat severe bacterial infections where a person cannot take penicillin antibiotics. Lincomycin cannot be used to treat viral infections, such as colds or flu.

Some examples of lincomycin include:

6. Macrolides

The next class of antibiotics that you need to know are macrolides. Macrolides are antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity that can fight many gram-positive bacteria.

Macrolides work by inhibiting protein synthesis in bacteria. Basically this drug is bacteriostatic but can be bactericidal at high concentration levels or depending on the type of microorganism.

Macrolides are widely used to treat mild to moderate infections, such as respiratory, ear, skin, and sexually transmitted infections. This type is especially useful for people who are allergic to beta-lactams.

Some examples of macrolides include:

  • Azithromycin
  • Clarithromycin
  • Erythromycin

7. Sulfonamides

Sulfonamides (sulfonamides) are a class of antibiotics that technically do not kill bacteria like other antibiotics. This group is bacteriostatic, which acts to stop the growth of bacteria.

Sulfonamides are excellent for use as a topical treatment to treat burns and vaginal and eye infections as well as treat urinary tract infections and diarrhea.

Some examples of sulfonamides include:

  • Sulfacetamide
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim

8. Glycopeptides

This class of antibiotics is a type of antibiotic that works by inhibiting the growth of bacterial cell walls by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis.

This type of antibiotic is usually used to treat serious infections caused by MRSA, Streptococcus, or Enterococcus bacteria. Some of the diseases that can be treated include endocarditis, pneumonia, and severe skin infections.

Some examples of glycopeptides include:

  • Dalbavancin
  • Oritavancin
  • Teicoplanin
  • Telavacin

9. Aminoglycosides

Aminoglycosides are a type of antibiotic used in the treatment of aerobic gram-negative bacilli infections. However, this class is also effective against other bacteria such as Staphylococci and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

This type of antibiotic is less effective when taken by mouth, therefore aminoglycosides are often given in injection form by health workers.

Some examples of aminoglycosides include:

  • Tobramycin
  • Gentamicin
  • Paromomycin
  • Amikacin
  • neomycin
  • Plazomicin

10. Carbapenems

The classification of antibiotics and examples of antibiotics that you need to know next is carbapenems. This group works by inhibiting cell wall synthesis and interfering with cell wall formation.

Some of the diseases that can be treated by this antibiotic include moderate to life-threatening infections.

Some examples of carbapenems include:

  • Doripenem
  • Iminepenem
  • Meropenem
  • Ertapenem

Are there any side effects from antibiotics?

Launch page MedicalNewsTodaySome of the side effects of antibiotics include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Nauseous
  • Vomit
  • The appearance of a rash
  • Stomach ache

Meanwhile, side effects that are less common are:

  • Formation of kidney stones
  • blood clots
  • Sun sensitivity

Therefore, in order to avoid these side effects, do not take antibiotics carelessly. It’s best to consult your doctor first before deciding to use antibiotics.

The doctor will provide instructions regarding the dosage and how to take it properly to avoid side effects of antibiotics.

Antibiotic resistance

Antibiotics can help treat bacterial infections if used properly and carefully. However, overuse of antibiotics can lead to bacterial resistance. This is because bacteria can adapt over time.

This can cause the bacteria to change so that the antibiotic can no longer work effectively on the bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the proper use of antibiotics, for example by:

  • Always consult a doctor first
  • Do not take antibiotics to treat viral infections
  • Take antibiotics only if prescribed by a doctor
  • Always follow the instructions given by the doctor
  • Don’t skip doses

Antibiotic interactions

If you are taking antibiotics, you should not take other drugs or herbal remedies without first talking to your doctor. This is because certain drugs may interact with antibiotics.

How to properly use antibiotics?

Antibiotics can be taken by mouth, given by injection, or by applying them directly to the infected body part.

Most antibiotics can start fighting the infection within a few hours. Therefore, it is best to finish all treatment to prevent the infection from reoccurring.

This is because stopping treatment sooner can increase the risk of bacteria becoming more resistant to treatment in the future. Not only that, always follow the doctor’s instructions correctly so that the drug becomes effective.

Avoid dairy products while taking tetracyclines, as they may interfere with absorption of the drug.

Any allergies from antibiotics?

Some people may not be suitable for antibiotic treatment. Some people may have an allergic reaction to antibiotics, especially penicillin.

Allergic reactions that can be caused include rashes, swelling of the face, and difficulty breathing. Someone who has an allergy to antibiotics should tell their doctor or pharmacist.

In addition, someone who has conditions related to liver or kidney function must also be careful when using antibiotics. This is because these conditions can affect the types of antibiotics that can be used and the doses that will be received.

On the other hand, pregnant women or nursing mothers should also talk to their doctor first before deciding to take antibiotics.

That’s information about the class of antibiotics that you need to know. Antibiotics should not be used carelessly. Therefore, make sure to consult with your doctor first.

If you have further questions about antibiotic classes and examples or the respective uses of antibiotics, you can also consult directly with your doctor.

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